About Tripoli

Mosin O. - Ph.D. Diatomaceous earth - a natural mineral sediment similar diatomite containing 80% active silica SiO2, but containing little organic residue. Chemical composition and diatomaceous earth diatomite is almost the same, but different microstructure. This is explained by the difference in the geological age of the deposits. Diatomite refer to later, and diatomaceous earth - to earlier deposits. Diatomite consist of fragments of shells of diatoms protozoa preserved their structure in the mineral. Diatomaceous earth - more dense rock in which the starting material completely lost its original shape. Diatomite more porous than diatomaceous earth. Depending on the amount of organic impurities and the presence of iron oxides and diatomaceous earth diatomite color ranges from white to pale yellow. Diatomaceous earth consists of small spherical opal, chalcedony sometimes globules size 0.01-0.02 mm. Usually a small amount diatomaceous earth contains clayey material grains of glauconite, quartz, feldspars. Plasticity diatomaceous earth depends on the content of clay impurities. Average density diatomaceous earth depending on the field ranges from 2000-3000 kg / m3; 60,2-64% porosity; hardness 1-3. Russia's largest Zikeevskoe deposit located in diatomaceous earth Zhizdrinsky District of Kaluga region. A relatively high porosity and low average density of these species (porosity diatomite piece 85% porosity diatomaceous earth below) determined using diatomaceous earth and diatomite as insulation, filter, building materials, and as absorbents, catalysts, fillers and adsorbents. Chemical composition in diatomaceous earth (%): SiO2 - 42-67, A12O3 - 5-8, Fe2O3 - 2-3, CaO -11-24, MgO - 0,6-1,2, other components - 11-21. The chemical composition of this mineral, its structure and adsorption properties allow the use of diatomaceous earth as a sorbent for wastewater from oil, petroleum, oils, suspended solids, and others. Experiments on using diatomaceous earth water treatment indicate a high retention efficiency of suspended solids in the filter on the basis of diatomaceous earth. Preliminary data of water clearing diatomaceous earth shown that it can be used as effectively as carbon sorbents to purify water. For example, there is a patent for water purification from oil products via diatomaceous earth. The invention relates to the field of ecology and is designed to combat pollution by oil products. A method of purifying water comprises preparing a porous sorption material based on natural minerals (shungite, perlite, diatomaceous earth, diatomaceous earth, flask) with a particle size less than 500 microns, and the thermoplastic hydrophobic polymers having a particle size less than 300 microns. Natural mineral is mixed with a thermoplastic polymer in a ratio of 100 wt. h. The mineral is 25-130 parts by weight polymer obtained mixture is filled molds specific configuration (disks, cylinders, bands, plates), and subjected to heat treatment at the melting point of the polymer for 5-40 min. For carrying out the method disks, cylinders or ribbon is rotated in an aqueous medium, contaminated with petroleum products, during the rotation of oil adhering to the surface of the continuously removed by scraper devices. Sorbent material in the form of plates are immersed in water contaminated oil, and kept as long as the concentration of oil in the water reaches the allowable value (0.05 mg / l). After saturation of sorbent oil sorbent material is removed by evacuation or centrifugation, after which the sorption material is used again. The effectiveness of a continuous process of water purification from oil products is 99,6-99,8%. It was also determined the sorption capacity of diatomaceous earth on ions: Ca2 +, Ni2 +, Fe3 +, Pb2 +, F--. It is established that an effective sorbent diatomaceous earth phenol and benzopyrene from aqueous media. We studied ways of modifying diatomaceous earth to improve its sorption properties. Also measured was the maximum adsorption of iron ions (III), manganese (II), copper (II) sulphate-ions to diatomaceous earth. It is found that in the case of adsorption of iron ions diatomaceous earth (III) and Cu (II) proceeds in the same - the maximum adsorption is 2,88 ± 0,02 mg / g and 2,17 ± 0,03 g / g, respectively. The latter fact allows the use of diatomaceous earth as a sorbent for removal of iron. However, there is one major drawback of diatomaceous earth. Having a well-developed outer surface, diatomaceous earth is characterized by low porosity and low ion-exchange properties. Therefore, before using natural diatomaceous earth, it must be activated in order to increase its adsorption and ion exchange properties. This can be achieved, for example, diatomaceous earth irradiating ionizing radiation. Developing new ways of modifying diatomaceous earth to produce high quality based on it is an urgent task of sorbents for water purification.

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Large geological encyclopedia

Diatomaceous earth (Ger. Tripel, from the name of the city of Diatomaceous earth, Diatomaceous earth, North Africa, and *. Diatomaceous earthte, diatomaceous earthth; n. Tripel; p. Diatomaceous earth; and. Diatomaceous earth, tripol) - unconsolidated or weakly cemented, very light, finely opal sedimentary rock breed. On the physico-chemical properties similar to diatomite, but almost devoid of organic residues and consists of globular calf diameter of 1-2 m, stacked amorphous silica (opal-cristobalite and a-cristobalite). Usually contains small amounts of clay substance, quartz grains, glauconite, feldspars. Color from white and gray to dark gray, brown, red and black. Diatomaceous earth density ranges from 1200 to 2500 kg / m3. Volumetric weight monolith ranges from 700 to 1250 kg / m3 and a porosity of 50-70%, the strength typically 30-35 kg / cm2 or less. The main deposits of diatomaceous earth CCCP associated with deposits of the Upper Cretaceous basins. Diatomaceous earth associated with volcanic sources of silica are small and confined to the spread of lacustrine sediments of the Oligocene and Miocene. Abroad (especially in the US) diatomaceous earth called chalcedony and quartz loose rocks formed by weathering silicified limestones which we are known as marshalite. The origin is probably a biochemical. More than 75% of extracted diatomaceous earth used as a supplement in the cement industry, about 24% goes to the production of heat insulation and building materials. Diatomaceous earth used as a filter and polishing material.

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Feeding of agricultural animals and technology of forages

Bogolyubov, Alexey V.. Academic Degree: PhD in Agricultural Sciences Relevance of the topic. Currently, it became apparent that extensive methods of animal husbandry, which until recently dominated the industry, do not provide the needs of the population in livestock products, resulting in suboptimal use of material, financial and human resources, inadequate use of established genetic potential productivity of animals. Intensive development of all sectors of the livestock, including dairy cattle, based along with the improvement of systems of breeding and living conditions for the creation of a solid food base. The latter includes not only the increase in the production of high quality feed, and their rational use. Rational use of feed based on increasing their productive action, increasing transformation of nutrients contained in the feed in livestock production through the development of advanced technologies and workpiece preparation of feed for feeding, feeding practices in the use of substances that promote the digestibility and nutrient utilization of diets. Such substances include minerals, vitamins, antioxidants, antibiotics. With the same purpose, use surfactants (detergents, sorbents). These substances of natural origin include zeolitic tuffs. There are about 40 species of natural zeolites (active ingredient tuffs), the most common of which are clinoptilolite, mordenite and giylanit, with b as cations in their molecules may be different elements, but more often than aluminum. In the practice of feeding farm animals zeolitic tuffs at first used as mineral supplements, because they contain virtually all macro- and micronutrients, which are normalized nutrition of farm animals. However, further attention was drawn to the fact that the efficiency of use of zeolitic tuff not only depend on their chemical composition, as from absorbent capacity. Mineral diatomaceous earth (Opal - cristobalite rocks) Konoplyanskogo field Kirovograd region devoid of organic residues, has high adsorptive properties due to high porosity, high specific surface area and ion exchange properties. With a large active surface (several hundred square meters per gram) in the gastrointestinal tract to selectively sorb INL, NH4, H2S, CH4, CO2, hydrocarbons, water, phenols, eq-band and endotoxin, heavy metals, radionuclides, putrefactive microorganisms and etc. Apparently, due to the absorption capacity diatomaceous earth is actively involved in the processes of digestion and assimilation of nutrients diets of farm animals. Efficiency of use of diatomaceous earth Konoplyanskogo deposit is of considerable theoretical and practical interest of research on feeding it to farm animals, including lactating cows. The purpose and objectives of research. To improve the productive action of concentrated feed in the diets of lactating cows due to the enrichment of natural sorbents, studies have been conducted in the task was: given the current structure and chemical composition of the diet of fodder farms in Ukraine and Central Europe to develop recipes of feed concentrates for lactating cows inclusion in their composition of different norms input mineral diatomaceous earth; study the effect of the test compound feed palatability of feed, digestibility and nutrient utilization of feed ration and biochemical status of the blood of experimental cows; study the dynamics of the experimental cows milk production and to calculate the cost-effectiveness and appropriateness of the use of diatomaceous earth Konoplyanskogo deposits in feeding dairy cows. Scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that for the first time have been developed and tested recipes of feed concentrates for laktirubschih cows with inclusion in their composition of the zeolite tuff Konoplyanskogo deposit; The optimal rate of its input, the influence of the test compound feed on digestibility and nutrient utilization of feed ration and biochemical status of the blood of experimental animals. The practical significance of the work lies in the fact that feeding a diet of lactating cows consisting of feed-concentrate with 4% (by weight) of diatomaceous earth can improve their milk production by 15-18%, reduce the cost of feed by 13-18%, decreased while the cost per unit products by 4-7%. objectives of the experiment - Recipes of feed concentrates for lactating cows with productivity 4500-5000 kg of milk per year with the inclusion of their composition diatomaceous earth Konoplyanskogo field (Kirovohrad region); influence of feed concentrates with diatomaceous earth on digestibility and nutrient utilization of feed, blood biochemistry and productive qualities of cows; calculations on the cost-effectiveness and feasibility of the mixed feed-mineral concentrates from diatomaceous earth in feeding lactating cows. The conclusion of the experiment. CONCLUSIONS On the basis of the research, the following conclusions; 1. Developed and tested in the scientific, economic, physiological and production experience fodder recipes to include in their composition of different amounts of mineral diatomaceous earth, Konoplyanskogo deposit, Kirovograd region in order to increase their productive action. 2. Inclusion in diets high yielding cows with mixed feed consumption increases diatomaceous earth animal solids and improves the digestibility of the organic matter at 2,0-3,4%, including protein at 7.6-7.8% fat on 2,7- 3.5% to 3.6-3.7% of fiber. 3. It is found that the enrichment of fodder diatomaceous earth increases nitrogen use by cows of the experimental group received at 7,98,9% calcium 9,1-11,8% and phosphorus on 0,3-6,6%. 4. The incorporation of the mineral feed for cows diatomaceous earth has a beneficial effect on the intensity and direction of the metabolic processes in animals, there is a tendency to decrease in their blood compared with the control, the concentration of urea, total lipids and fractions with simultaneous tendency to increased protein and lipid indices. 5. Increasing the digestibility of organic matter, particularly proteins, fat and fiber, the use of nitrogen and minerals, metabolic intensity boosted milk production in cows experienced groups 6,5-13,3% and an increase in milk fat 0.08 -0.21%, the cost of concentrates on the formation of 1 liter milk 4% fat content is reduced by 4,814%. 6. Fodder norm entering into its composition mineral diatomaceous earth at 4% by weight, when fed to lactating cows reduces the cost of 1 quintal of milk on 2,9-6,8%, and allows you to get additional profit in the amount of 4574 rubles, compared with the control group. 7. When the production inspections have been fully confirmed by the results of scientific and business experience: when administered in the diet of high-producing cows mineral diatomaceous earth the rate of 4% (by weight) increased in the experimental group of cows milk productivity by 9.9%, the fat content of milk at 0.17% and reduces the cost of concentrates na10,9% compared with the control. Suggestions production. On the basis of the research, in order to improve the metabolic processes and productive action forages in lactating cows highly recommended in the diet include feed, which includes mineral deposits diatomaceous earth Konoplyanskogo Kirovograd region the rate of 4% by weight of the feed. Conclusion In order to enhance the productive action of concentrated feed in the feeding of lactating cows were developed and tested in the scientific and business and manufacturing experience recipes feed, with the inclusion of the mineral diatomaceous earth, Konoplyanskogo field Kirovograd region at 3, 4 and 5% (by weight ). Total was developed three recipes. In this recipe served basis fodder 60-6 K, which consisted of a grain mixture, sunflower meal, feed phosphates and salt, premix. As a result of the research, it was found that the composition of feed had no significant effect on dry matter intake of diets. However, the dry matter intake in the 2 experimental group compared to the control was higher than 5%. Increasing the energy density of the diet in the experimental groups connected, as with a slightly higher food consumption, and with a slight increase in digestibility of nutrients, which coincides with the results of Makarenko LY et al. Accounting milk production showed that the use of feed with diatomaceous earth in feeding lactating cows had a significant impact on the level of milk production and milk fat content. In the period of scientific and economic experience in the 2 and 3 experimental groups was observed an increase in daily milk yield by 2.8 and 2.4 kg. compared with controls (P <0.001). At the same time there was a simultaneous increase in milk fat and 0.21 percent and 0.0§ absalyutno. During production inspection in the experimental group of cows average daily milk yield increased by 11.0% (P <0.001), and the fat content of milk at 0.17%. . Given that studies were marked differences in the milk fat cows to obtain comparable data were calculated gross and daily average milk yield 4% fat. It was found that the average daily milk yield of 4% of milk in the control group was lower than experienced at 8,4-18% (P <0.001), similar results were obtained Kuznetsov SG et al., however, there was a reduction of feed cost per unit of production, since in the test groups of cows. Since energy consumption per 1 kg of 4% of the milk of these animals were 6,4-15% less than controls, including concentrates 4,7-14%. In physiological studies (balance experiment), it was found that feeding of high-producing cows feed with a zeolite diatomaceous earth leads to an increase in digestibility coefficients of almost all nutrients and administration of 4% by weight diatomaceous earth increased digestibility of dry matter and organic for accurate value compared with the control. Similar results were obtained in studies of other authors who have studied the efficiency of the use of zeolites in the feeding of ruminants. In the study and use of a nitrogen balance was established that in the experimental groups showed an increase in deposits it in the body 38.7 and 33%, and its use has increased in comparison with the control at 2.5 and 0.8%, respectively. Analyzing the data obtained on the balance and the use of mineral experimental animals, it should be noted that the use of feed with diatomaceous earth can increase calcium deposition at 12.9 - 6.6%, and the deposition of phosphorus 17.2 -3.5% compared with the control. The experimental animals used minerals in the percentage of accepted as more than cows in the control group. Since calcium example 4.4 -3.3% and phosphorus 2.7 - 0.1% higher. Thus, physiological studies, it was found that the inclusion of mineral feedingstuffs diatomaceous earth, Konoplyanskogo field Kirovogrdskoy area improves nutrient digestibility of the diet, and has a positive effect on calcium and phosphorus metabolism in animals. Our results are consistent with the data width and Kirilenko N.T NP Explain the increase in milk yield, milk fat yield, improved digestibility of nutrients can analyze the process of rumen digestion. So according to SV Coumarin into scar chyme cows fed zeolite concentration of ammonia were lower by about 30%, which occurs due to both its zeolite adsorption and through more intensive use of rumen microflora for protein synthesis own body. Confirmation of this provision is the data to increase the density of the simplest of 3.7% and 2.1 times the bacteria into scar contents of cows that feed by feeding with the zeolite. In ruminal fermentation end products of carbohydrate are volatile fatty acids. Consequently, the increase in the intensity of biosynthetic processes in the rumen of cows was only possible at a higher intensity of fermentation processes and, ultimately, into scar chyme, should increase the concentration of VFA, as the end product of carbohydrate digestion, confirmed the data of the author. Moreover, it is noted that zeolite tuff rumen of cows not only enhances the fermentation process, but also change their orientation towards predominance propionic fermentation, while reducing the total number of LLC proportion of acetic and butyric acids. A decline in the proportion of these acids in the experience was offset by an increase of the total number of VFA, increased production of acetic acid was 15.2% and 14.3% of butyric acid, which stimulates increased synthesis of milk fat. Reducing ammonia and increased VFA content sumarno into scar chyme cows sposobstvovuet decrease in pH, which in turn is beneficial to the development of microflora. Thus, zeolites stimulating biosynthetic processes in the rumen, resulting in ruminant intestines enters more microbial protein biological value which is higher than rastitelnog protein feed. An indirect confirmation of the fact that the experimental group of cows under the influence of diatomaceous earth change the intensity and direction of fermentation processes, but also enhances the biosynthetic processes in the rumen, are studies on the biochemical status of the blood. It was found that feeding cows experienced groups of feed and BVD with zeolite tuff accompanied by some increase in glucose and a sharp decrease in the urea content in the blood. Furthermore, in the blood of animals of experimental groups there was a slight reduction in the total lipids, which occurs mainly due to the neutral lipids, while increasing lipid and nitrogen index. All this testifies to the positive impact on the intensity of diatomaceous earth biosynthetic processes in the body of lactating cows that fully confirmed by the growth of milk productivity of cows experimental groups. The calculations vypolnennnyh based on experimental data of scientific and economic experience in the prices existing at the time of the research, it was found that feeding cows on fodder developed recipes gives a fairly high cost efficiency. Thus, it should be noted that the highest economic performance observed in cows fed feed supplemented with 4% mineral diatomaceous earth. In this group, a decrease in the cost of 1 u milk compared with the control, -opytnoy 1 and 3 experimental groups of 2.9, 6.8 and 4.7%, respectively, and increased profits from sales of milk at 8.9, 19, 1 and 14.5%. All this was the basis for the production of feed checking with ispolzovaneim on this recipe to obtain more reliable data on a large number of cows. Production check this option, held in the same sector on a large number of cows has shown that the introduction of the combined feed diatomaceous earth based on 4% of the weight will reduce the cost of milk at 3.4% and earn extra income. Data on the production checks fully confirmed the results of scientific and economic experience that gives grounds confidently recommend the use in the production of feeding lactating cows feed-concentrate with the addition of a 4% (by weight) of diatomaceous earth. Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Bogolyubov, Alexey V., 2001

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